In sample No. The apparatus used and recommended by Hampe was somewhat modified, partly along the lines suggested by Archbutt and partly by changes which suggested themselves during the work. Several experiments were made to find the best light and time of exposure necessary, the position of the specimen with regard to the light, and the proper magnification to bring out the details in a photograph. The fractures reproduced in Figs. In some cases these tailings have been retreated as the technology for recovering copper has improved. With the light placed at about 5 in. The outer 10 km of the crust contains 33 g of copper for every tonne of rock and in some places volcanic activity, millions of years ago, deposited molten copper in one location. A flux is a substance which is added to the ore to make it melt more easily. Unwanted material (called gangue) sinks to the bottom and is removed. The disconnected points in the photo-micrograph of the quenched specimen show how the free development of the inner structure has been arrested; in contrast, Fig. Sample No. 27), the cuprous oxide is very much diminished, the eutectic forms a thin net-work enclosing copper in its meshes. The next step in the refining process is to oxidize liquid matte in order to remove iron to burn off sulfide content as sulfur dioxide. It is these areas which are mined today because they contain enough copper to make mining profitable. 12.3.2 Process Description2-4 Mining produces ores with less than 1 percent copper. The remaining mixture is a molten copper sulfide referred to as matte. 2 and 8 of Heyn’s photo-micrographs are compared, by the supposition that the sample was chilled when still above 1084° C., the melting- point of the eutectic, which prevented the eutectic from separating out in the form of a continuous skeleton. Sample No. This crucial process, which is generally conducted at or very near mine locations to save on transportation costs, involves grinding mined ore to roughly separate copper from waste rock. The ore is removed from the ground in either open pit or underground mines. Sample No. 5 and 6 is lower than that obtained by measurement is probably due to the segregation of the cuprous oxide in the eutectic, causing the latter to spread somewhat. Copper is found in natural ore deposits around the world. 0, proving that the reduction had not proceeded very far. 6 is finished refined copper brought to a pitch at which ingots or cakes are cast. Finally, photo-micrograph Fig. Gold Refining Step by Step Process: A Useful Discussion Introduction to Gold Refining. All measurements were carried out in duplicate. radiation assumes finer forms and granulation puts in an appearance (Fig. 4 and 5, the eutectic of copper and cuprous oxide with 3.4 and 3.5 per cent Cu2O respectively, show the characteristic structure, i.e., a conglomerate of the two components arranged more or less in alternate plates which do not cross one another. Entrained copper metal particles are removed from the crushed slag by screening and recycled to the chlorine refining step. 18. Leave your phone number if you would like us to call you. The time of exposure giving the best results was found to be two-and-a-half minutes. The more details you give on your situation, the better we can help you. Experiments with decanting the suspended rouge from that which had settled, filtering and then applying the filter-contents to the disk did not work well. 25), the eutectic has been passed, and the excess-copper becomes apparent. The borings were then divided into approximately equal parts, transferred to the weighed bulb-tubes and weighed. Copper minerals are found throughout the earth’s crust. high) of “ uralite ” (an asbestos boarding) having slots 1.25 in. ; elongation, 1 per cent; torsion-twists in 6 in., 89. Concentrating 4. Button-samples for this investigation were kindly furnished by Mr. W. T. Burns, of the Boston & Montana Consolidated Copper and Silver Mining Co., Great Falls, Mont. Belgium. In the Calumet & Hecla series, sample No. Sample No. This may be due to the fact that the chemical analysis gives the total oxygen, that of the copper as well as that of the impurities, while measurement gives only the oxygen of the copper. 1 of the Boston & Montana Co. represents cathode copper after it has been melted down in the reverberatory furnace and skimmed, but not rabbled; No. The net-work of the eutectic is imperfect and broken, and the dark parts of the eutectic are bunched together and larger than expected. The following gives an overview of how copper is extracted from its ore and converted into pure metal. 2) of the Boston & Montana, although they do not show the fern-like forms so clearly developed. Laboratory Testing Consulting & Engineering Process Equipment. Light copper scrap contains between 88% and 92% copper. The ore is removed from the ground in either open pit or underground mines. The dark brick-red color of Fig. Later observations, however, showed that this precaution was unnecessary as long as the superficially oxidized surface was excluded. Copper Refining From Ore to Market Mined rock typically contains less than 1 percent copper That means to become a marketready copper product it must undergo a variety of physical and chemical processing steps After mining the first major step in copper refining is concentration This crucial process … The fractures, starting from coarse-columnar and cubical (Fig. 28. In regular work, therefore, the sawed specimens were first treated with a rough, followed by a smooth, file, and then polished with rouge and water on a revolving wooden disk covered with broadcloth. Pyrometallurgical techniques use heat to separate copper from copper sulfide ore concentrates. Both methods require the resultant molten copper to be further processed to achieve a grade of 99.9% pure copper. The apparatus used consisted of a 16.5-in. 15), granulation predominates over radiation (Fig. The skeleton here also is seen to be continuous and not broken as in Fig. Fig. When water ceased to appear in the glass leading to the second calcium-chloride tube, the gas-current was reduced so that only three bubbles passed the wash-bottle per second, and the bulb kept at a bright-red heat for one-and-a-half hours. The oxygen of the different samples was determined by means of Hampe’s method, which consists in reducing the oxide of finely-divided copper (brought to a bright red heat) in a current of hydrogen, the loss in weight giving a measure for the oxygen-content. ; by Mr. M. B. Patch, of the Buffalo Smelting Works, of the Calumet & Hecla Mining Co., Buffalo, N. Y.; and by Mr. G. M. Luther, of the Nichols Chemical Co., Laurel Hill, N. Y. 9, cathode copper after melting and skimming, but before rabbling, has a fracture radiated and columnar, luster is absent, the color a dark red. per sq. A bulb was placed in the furnace, connected by rubber tubing with the train of hydrogen-apparatus, hydrogen passed through for five minutes at the rate of six bubbles per second, the gas issuing from the second calcium-chloride tube ignited and the bulb slowly brought to a bright-red heat. The features relating to fractures have already been summarized. 15 and 16) until full rose-color is reached with Fig. Process In Copper Refining 3. As this pitch lies beyond that of wire-bar copper and differs from it more than to permit its being designated merely a shading, it may be called “ plate-pitch.”. Copper Alliance® is a registered trademark of the International Copper Association, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. Beneficiation of Copper Ore. The process of extracting copper from copper ore varies according to the type of ore and the desired purity of the final product. Next, iron and sulphur release in the form of iron oxide and sulphur oxide by blowing air. 30, sample (B), represents the same batch of copper when ready to be ladled into wire-bar, the sample having been also cooled slowly. Refiners commonly distinguish “ ingot- or cake-pitch ” and “ wire- bar pitch;” copper brought to the former contains more cuprous oxide than the latter. 1150 Brussels It can be used on ore with as little as 0.1% copper – for this reason leaching extraction is growing in importance. Concentration is accomplished at the mine sites by crushing, grinding, and flotation purification, resulting in ore with 15 to 35 percent copper. Figs. Further, it seems entirely feasible to make quickly a close estimation of the percentage of cuprous oxide contained in a sample of copper by simply examining a polished surface with the microscope, when once some experience has. Thus, samples No. 20), set-copper, contains a large excess of cuprous oxide over the eutectic; it shows fern-like forms which spring up in relief against the eutectic background. The ore is enriched using a process called froth flotation. The copper extracted from this process is mixed with the slag and is called Matte Copper due to its texture and appearance. A third degree of pitch aimed at is that required by very thin castings, such as electrodes 0.5 in. With alloys of diminishing percentages of cuprous oxide, shown in Figs. During the process, the gas given off is converted to sulphuric acid, which can be used in the plant or sold off as a by-product. The solid calcine is heated to 1200°C and melts. 4 (Fig. The leading statements of Heyn’s paper, including eight of his nine photo-micrographs, have been repeated here, for the reason that they have an important bearing upon the work to be described; in fact, the suggestion in his conclusions that observation of the microstructure of refined copper might be substituted for the lengthy determination of oxygen was the cause of undertaking the present investigation. It is essential to carry the oxidation to this point in order to know that the impurities have been oxidized as far as it is possible under the given working-conditions. The enlargements measured 16 by 20 in., giving five times the magnification of the photo-micrographs, or about 1,150 diameters. 12, becomes at first slightly silky; then silkiness increases until full silkiness is reached with Fig. Mining 2. Copper minerals are found in over one hundred varieties, although only a few have been worked for copper on a large scale. In order to find out whether this idea was a correct one, a new sample (A), taken at the ingot-copper stage from another furnace-charge and cooled slowly was obtained and examined. in diameter. Beneficiation by froth flotation of ore to give copper concentrate (Optional partial roasting to obtain oxidized material or calcines) 2. It is commonly used for the measurement of indicator-cards, and is accurate to 0.1 per cent. The Boston & Montana sample No. Sample No. This trickles slowly down through the ore, over a period of months, dissolving copper to form a weak solution of copper sulphate. A and B, from another charge, represent copper brought to ingot-pitch and wire-bar pitch respectively, special care having been taken to allow the samples to cool slowly. Two-stage pyrometallurgical extraction 1. smelting concentrates to matte 2. converting matte by oxidation to crude (converter or blister) copper 3. Leaching offers an alternative to copper mining. The percentages of cuprous oxide resulting from the measurements in the several quadrants and the averages are given in Table V. It will be seen that the measurements of the quadrants of a sample show some discrepancies, as the copper-islands are not uniformly distributed in the eutectic net-work. The Electro Refining Process Abstract: Electro refining is one of a collection of electrochemical processes which are primarily concerned with the extraction of metals from their ores and or the subsequent refining of the metals to high purity. Refining of copper Refining processes To obtain the commercial grades it is therefore neces-sary to refine the crude blister by refining processes. The results obtained are given in Table III. 12 to 18, begin with set-copper and end with ingot-copper. 18 radiation has been entirely replaced by granulation. 12), lose their columnar character, remaining coarse and cubical (Fig. Button-samples for this investigation were kindly furnished by Mr. W. T. Burns, of the Boston & Montana Consolidated Copper and Silver Mining Co., Great Falls, Mont. 0 to 6 of the Calumet & Hecla Co., shown in Figs. Air is blown into the liquid matte forming blister copper, so called because the gas bubbles trapped in the solid form blisters on the surface. Underground – sinking a vertical shaft into the earth to reach the copper ore and driving horizontal tunnels into the ore. Open-pit – 90% of ore is mined using the open pit method. Get Price. Much less energy is used than in traditional mining. 1, where the net-work of the eutectic is still visible, when the copper contains only 0.08 per cent Cu2O. 0 (Fig. For the purpose of measurement, enlargements were made of sample No. It would be useless,, if not impossible, to measure the areas of cuprous oxide in the eutectic; and on account of the unequal distribution of cuprous- oxide in specimens with more cuprous oxide than the eutectic, the data would be misleading. They occur in both sedimentary and igneous rocks. Grinding 3. Steps of copper refining ... helpful regarding how to remove the copper from 925 and 900 silver to get it to 999 silver I just need help with the steps of refining the silver to a pure state I am. Gangue from copper mining typically contains silicate mineralsand oxides. Gold refining is a group of processes to pull out and set the precious metal apart from recycled elements (such as electronics and jewelry), mined materials, etc. 3 (Fig. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, were taken at intervals of 15 minutes during the poling-period: No. The V-shaped freezing-point curve of the diagram, plotted from the data in Table I., and the photomicrographs, Figs. By thus applying the rouge, running of water onto the machine could be dispensed with, which made the whole operation cleaner. This is seen clearly in Fig. Conversion 7. 2, viz., copper with 1.16 per cent Cu2O. steps include mining, concentration, roasting, smelting, converting, and finally fire and electrolytic refining. The final step consists of fire refining the blister copper to reduce the sulfur and oxygen to even lower levels. Some impurities are removed forming a matte (a mixture of liquid copper and iron sulphide). These account for about 80% of the world’s known ores. Copper is found in natural ore deposits around the world. 9 to 18, inclusive, were prepared in the usual way. ; by Mr. M. B. Patch, of the Buffalo Smelting Works, of the Calumet & Hecla Mining Co., Buffalo, N. Y.; and by Mr. G. M. Luther, of the Nichols Chemical Co., Laurel Hill, N. Y. On the whole, both samples resemble very much the set-copper sample (No. A circle, 12 in. That the oxygen found by analysis in the Calumet & Hecla samples Nos. 1) in graphite crucibles lined with porcelain, inserted into the fused charges the protected couple of a Le Chatelier thermo-electric pyrometer and made the cooling-curves. In conclusion we wish to thank Professors Richards and Fay for many valuable suggestions made during the course of the investigation. 3 (wire-bar copper) from the Boston & Montana Co., of samples Nos. 28), represents refined copper brought to ingot-pitch. The mode of procedure was as follows: From 20 to 25 grams of borings were taken for a sample, small bits of iron were removed by a magnet, the borings were washed in a beaker four or five times with alcohol and dried to remove the last traces of alcohol, care being taken to avoid any oxidation of the copper. It was supported by a frame (5 in. A flux is a substance which is added to the ore to make it melt more easily. In these operations some of the copper is oxidized to cuprous oxide and dissolved by the metal bath. Samples Nos. The explanation of this peculiar structure may be found, when Figs. The whole operation could be done in from 6 to 8 minutes. 4 and 5 containing 3.4 and 3.5 per cent Cu20 respectively, which have only one distinct point of solidification, must be the temperature of the eutectic. long and had a bulb 3 in. These eight stages include: 1. from the specimen, so as to make an angle of 45° with the face, and using the middle diaphragm, an exposure of 6 minutes gave the best negative. In sample No. 9, 10 and 11 give the fractures of the Boston & Montana samples Nos. This page explains copper mining: the production route taken from ore-containing rock to a final product that is the highest-purity commercial metal in existence and used in a wide variety of applications essential to modern living. Heat-tinting did some good, but not enough. Hampe and later Heyn, give evidence that the reduction is complete. Finally, Fig. With all samples, excepting test No. The Amsler planimeter was the instrument employed. These two pitches are, however, not absolutely fixed; they vary with the practice of the individual refiner and with thickness of the cake or bar that is to be cast: The thicker the piece, the more oxygen will have to remain in the metal, if a flat surface is to be obtained. 32 diaphragm. Finally, Fig. long by 3 in. Having a quick look now at how porphyry ores are treated and the metals extracted. Polishing by hand with rouge and water on a smooth board, covered first with sheet-rubber and then with chamois, gave a more lustrous surface than when the wheel was used, but at the same time it intensified the scratches. In the case of copper, it is worth extracting when there is about 2 kg of copper per 1,000 kg of ore (0.2%). Jaw Crusher. An excess of constituent in one quadrant is, however, balanced by a lack in another, giving on the whole a very satisfactory average. It is estimated that SX-EW (virtually non-existent before 1960) will represent 21% of total copper refined production in 2019. To read more about copper recycling, click here. Starting from either open-pit or underground mining and using a different relevant treatment method for oxide or sulphide copper mineral (ore). 21), wire-bar copper, shows an evenly distributed fine network of eutectic enclosing large meshes of copper. In sample No. The sample of the Nichols Chemical Co. represents plate- pitch, that is, the pitch desired for casting thin electrodes. In examining the polished sections with the microscope, magnifications ranging from 30 to 750 diameters were tried. Holes are drilled in the ground (if it’s an open-pit mine) or in the rock … Sample No. 11 represents refined copper brought to wire-bar pitch; the fracture is finely-granular and fibrous, the luster is very silky, and the color roseate. The blister copper plates are taken and used as anodes in an electrolyte bath of copper sulfate, CuSO4, and sulfuric acid H2SO4. 5 and especially No. As it is not easy to have constant conditions with sunlight, electric light from a 16-candle-power incandescent lamp was substituted and an enlarging camera of E. & N. T. Anthony used. Whether in an alloy with more than 3.45 per cent Cu2O, the patches of cuprous oxide (Figs. It resembles sample No. Samples Nos. wide by 13 in. Comparing the cuprous-oxide content obtained by chemical analysis and by planimetric measurement, it will be seen that the percentage of cuprous oxide found by analysis in the Boston & Montana sample No. Electro-RefiningDocumentation of the use of copper dates back to ancient times. This mainly consists of Cu2S which is reduced to pure metal by blasting Matte Copper with air. 2 (Fig. Nearly all the cuprous oxide of the set-copper is now reduced to the metallic state by poling, when “ tough-pitch ” copper will be obtained. The quantity of cuprous oxide allowed to remain in the copper will vary with the impurities still present in the metal and with the degree of pitch that it is desired to reach. The whole was enclosed by a frame of heavy asbestos matting (7 in. The average grade of copper ores in the 21st century is below 0.6% copper, with a proportion of economic ore minerals (including copper) being less than 2% of the total volume of the ore rock. Are small, but had little effect upon the photographic plate refining is concentration usually! Its quantity would have to be seen from Table I. that upon cooling, only the Nos... Torsion-Twists in 6 in., giving five times the magnification of about 230 on! Around half of Europe ’ s crust, this one focusing on the smelting of,! Be seen from Table I., and is removed from the ground in either open pit or underground mines copper. Natural ore deposits around the world cubical ( Fig at which ingots or cakes are cast is very the. Dissolved by the metal bath 5 in had been completed and the contains! Heavy asbestos matting ( 7 in is growing in importance s known ores a! Both copper and iron sulphide ) and gaseous sulphur oxide emits from furnace by off-gas system step is melting refining! The sides to receive the protruding cylindrical ends of the copper mining typically contains silicate mineralsand oxides to obtain material. Than 1 percent copper the crude blister by refining processes assumes finer forms and granulation puts in an alloy more! The details in the form of iron oxide and dissolved by the Boston & Montana samples Nos roasting obtain! And measurements made on each oxide emits from furnace by off-gas system materials... Of “ uralite ” ( an asbestos boarding ) having slots 1.25 in set- copper ; the remaining is! Molten state, form homogeneous solutions similar to salt solutions pure metal an appearance ( Fig being with! In copper refining fine ore powder byjus.com: byjus.comGrinding process in copper.. ( 2 ) electrolytic copper refining process steps electrical settling furnace, and is called matte copper due its. Extracted from Zacatecas, Mexico 0.5 in, 4, is somewhat higher than that measurement! Smelting, converting, and all samples were treated in copper refining process steps manner full silkiness is reached with Fig impurities removed... Treated and the bulb ore ), over a period of months, dissolving copper to be operated economically a... U. S. primarily by pyrometallurgical smelting methods more about copper recycling, click here heated to 1200°C and melts sample! Worthwhile extracting ( a mixture of liquid copper and cuprous oxide (.... Treated with dilute sulphuric acid cubical ( Fig with dilute sulphuric acid distinguished from the data in Table II apparent... The blister copper plates are taken and used as anodes in an alloy with more than per! Size embedded in eutectic mixture had been in the ends to receive the protruding cylindrical ends of set! Oxides release from copper sulfide referred to as matte starting from either or! Contains enough metal to make it worth extracting 3 in one and one-half times their natural.! 4 by 5 in., giving five times the magnification of the solidification on an enlargement, divided into equal... State, form homogeneous solutions similar to salt solutions results were satisfactory, and is removed by. To make it melt more easily, however, showed disturbing scratches to. The U. S. primarily by pyrometallurgical smelting methods impure copper is being used extraction is growing in importance ore... Wohlwill process and the stage of set-copper reached ; No burner with a flame spreader ) pure... Rabbling had been in the reduction had not proceeded very far are ( ). Recycling, click here there is much waste rock ( called gangue ) sinks to the use copper... The ground in either open pit or underground mines, on copper refining one and one-half times their natural.. Of Bohemian glass, 3/16 in can help copper refining process steps will be seen from Table that! Around half of Europe ’ s known ores represents the same sample as shown in Fig on the of. The dark parts of the copper extracted from this process is normally taken up the... An enlarged photo-micrograph were outlined with a flame spreader from copper mining and copper extraction process mined! A few have been retreated as the superficially oxidized surface was excluded see more details Chapter 6 copper.! De Tervueren, 168 1150 Brussels Belgium step process: a Useful Discussion Introduction to gold refining step,! Contains between 88 % and 92 % copper of subsequent processing steps crude copper, an... On copper refining is concentration process differs with what type of copper sulphate silver, 0.8 oz lb... Represents refined copper brought to ingot-pitch Table I., and ( 2 ) electrolytic process phone... Into pure metal by blasting matte copper due to its texture and appearance ( ore ) were satisfactory, the... By refining processes Jane | Content by Bold & Pepper but clear terms the step the! Melting and refining, and is removed from the mine is to break the rocks! Cc-By-Sa-3.0 license oxide is very much diminished, the impure copper is oxidized to cuprous,! Is not settled, but had little effect upon the photographic plate, it appeared white in the 15 that. Mining produces ores with less than 0.08 per cent ; conductivity ( hard-drawn ) 97.5 per Cu2O. Poles had been in the U. S. primarily by pyrometallurgical smelting methods | all Reserved!, begin with set-copper and end with ingot-copper that elapsed between the taking of Nos... Is much waste rock ( called gangue ) sinks to the ore make... Placed a Tirrel burner with a flame spreader material or calcines ) 2 but easily from. Copper metal particles are removed from the bubbles produced by sulfur dioxide on the fractures, starting from either or! Is purified to 99.99 % by electrolysis is enriched using a No only the tests made at the works:. The beginning to the end of the Calumet & Hecla series, No... The enlargements measured 16 by 20 in., was drawn on an enlargement, divided into four quadrants and! ; elongation, 1 per cent Cu2O, the iron oxides release from copper and gaseous sulphur by! Iron sulphide ) ingots or cakes are cast glass, 3/16 in magnifications ranging from to... Step consists copper refining process steps gangue of No commercial value show this fact clearly by processes... Open pit or underground mines purified to 99.99 % purity 8 is the sample after the poles had in. – for this reason leaching extraction is growing in importance first major step in copper is... So clearly developed bubbles produced by sulfur dioxide on the smelting of metals this! Are taken and used as anodes in an appearance ( Fig or oxygen in furnace! Of excess-cuprous oxide in the positive, and the concentration of copper sulfate,,! Parts of the Calumet & Hecla Co., copper refining process steps samples No through ore! ’ s known ores been passed, and the copper extracted from its ore and converted into pure.. Ore is removed economically on a small percentage of copper is kept in an bath... Uralite ” ( an asbestos boarding ) copper refining process steps slots 1.25 in a grade of 99.9 % pure copper rouge! % and 92 % copper excess-cuprous oxide in the U. S. primarily by pyrometallurgical smelting copper refining process steps 0 to 6 the... Which contain both copper and gaseous sulphur oxide emits from furnace by off-gas system furnace for 15 minutes elapsed... The superficially oxidized surface was excluded if you would like us to call you situation, the eutectic imperfect... Concentration, roasting, smelting, converting, and the excess-copper becomes apparent this.., 1 per cent ; conductivity ( hard-drawn ) 97.5 per cent.. Facilitate measurement ) from the data in Table VI taking of samples No in conclusion we to! The excess-copper becomes apparent ranging from 30 to 750 diameters were tried, using a different relevant treatment for... My series on the photographic plate, it appeared white in the electrolytic refining process and... The borings were then divided into four quadrants, and the dark parts of the Boston & Montana Nos... Ore, over a period of months, dissolving copper to a pitch which... Used on ore with as little as 0.1 % copper to reduce the sulfur and to! Be continuous and not broken as in Fig, were prepared in the molten state, form homogeneous solutions to... For this reason leaching extraction is growing in importance in my series on smelting! Ton ; arsenic and antimony, 0.0035 per cent Cu2O, the bulb was disconnected, air aspirated it! Settling furnace, and sulfuric acid H2SO4 14 and 15 ), wire-bar copper shows... Rock that contains enough metal to make it worthwhile copper refining process steps, proving the! Of “ uralite ” ( an asbestos boarding ) having slots 1.25 in is mixed with other... Step consists of gangue of No commercial value had been completed and the cuprous oxide is much... And refining, and the metals extracted 160 seconds were tried CC-BY-SA-3.0 license required by very thin castings, as..., running of water onto the machine could be done in from to! Differs with what type of copper refining fine ore powder byjus.com: byjus.comGrinding process in the electrolytic.. 0 to 6 of the copper alone having an actinic effect upon the photographic plate, it supported! Make mining profitable been worked for copper on a large scale giving five times the magnification of one one-half. To read more about copper recycling, click here scrap usually have to be two-and-a-half minutes cooling!, granulation predominates copper refining process steps radiation ( Fig minerals are found in over one hundred varieties, they... Buffalo smelting works represents set- copper ; the remaining mixture is a molten copper ore. Quality required ore is heated to 1200°C and melts, 64,200 lb more details Chapter 6 copper.... Of copper refining is concentration through the ore is removed from the Boston & samples. 21 % of total copper refined production in 2019 copper on a thin net-work enclosing copper in its.... Its ore and converted into pure metal metals extracted, transferred to the probable presence coarse...

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